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Gabarito Comentado – Concurso IBGE Analista – Inglês

Publicado em 4 de dezembro de 2013 por - Comentar

Confira o gabarito comentado da prova de Inglês, do concurso do IBGE 2013 para Analistas, comentada pelo Professor Jomar Lima do Aprova Concursos.

Prova muito bem elaborada! Os textos apresentaram o tema imigração. O texto 1 discorrendo sobre a imigração em si e o texto 2 apresentou comentários de pessoas que leram o texto 1. 

Os nossos alunos devem ter adorado a prova devido ao fato de que a aula 7 do nosso curso apresentou um texto sobre o mesmo tema com o título “New Immigrants”, com o vocabulário básico do texto da aula, também presente nos textos da prova. Outro motivo de contentamento, foram as conjunções, as quais foram trabalhadas na aula 4 e estavam também presentes em alguns dos testes. O conhecimento de vocabulário através de testes em que sinônimos eram pedidos também permitiu o acerto de questões. Muitas das expressões pedidas “coincidentemente” estavam presentes nos demais textos apresentados em nosso curso. 

As questões avaliaram com sucesso o conhecimento de língua inglesa dos candidatos e mostra que para avaliar estudantes com diferentes níveis de conhecimento da língua inglesa, o texto não precisa ser curto ou banal, com questões baseadas no óbvio, ou apresentar tópicos de gramática exageradamente simples. Parabéns aos elaboradores da prova. Esperamos que provas assim sejam apresentadas em todas as edições. 

 

Text I

 

Better Living Standards

April 16,2013

Despite discussion to the contrary, the best available economic evidence suggests that immigration expands the economic opportunities and incomes of Americans and helps reduce the budget deficit.

Recent research suggests that immigration raises wages and lowers prices for consumers throughout the economy. For American business owners, immigrants are both new sources of customers and employees, helping to expand production using American resources and know-how in sectors ranging from farming to technology. For American workers the data suggest that rather than competing for identical jobs, immigrants tend to work alongside and in support of American workers, creating more and better job opportunities

Results from recent cutting-edge economics research on the impact of immigration on wages show small but positive effects of immigration on American wages as a whole. The evidence becomes more mixed, though, when looking at specific groups of workers, While some studies show large negative impacts of immigration on low-skill workers, other estimates find that immigration raises the wages of all US workers, regardless of education.  As further evidence supporting the second set of findings, one study that examines a period of rapid immigration finds that immigrants do not cause declines in wages,  even among less-skilled residents

Most studies also find that over time immigrants improve the finances of programs like Social Security and can actually help reduce the budget deficit. And these are only the direct measured effects of immigration on individual wages, employment and the budget. Immigrants, particularly higher-skilled immigrants, start more businesses and participate in scientific and other research at higher rates than native-born Americans. These other findings hint at additional potential benefits of more immigration, including increases in innovation that could help boost overall economic growth. The high fraction of innovative Silicon Valley start-ups founded by immigrants are an important example of this point.

These potential additional boosts to economic growth are not necessary to make a case for more immigration. The evidence on the direct effects of immigration  higher wages lower prices and net taxes  shows that immigration raises standards of living for Americans.

 

Comments from readers of Text I

1. April 17, 2O13 at 7:03 pm Florianópolis-SC – Brasil

Comment sem by UN.

The experience of field research in LA while living in the US gave me two insights in support of the thesis defended by the researchers.

First, even poor campesinos from EI Salvador can prosper in the US. They send their kids to school, learn English as a second language, start a small business or do work shunned by Americans.

The question is why a poor EI Salvadorean can become a valuable citizen in the US and not in his native country? The US economic and social systems are set up to provide opportunity for immigrants to prosper.  Immigration is the engine of growth and prosperity of the American economy.

The second argument is counter factual. Countries closed to immigration lag behind those opened to foreign skill and knowledge. Take the case of Brazil. In the l9th century many predicted Brazil would become a world power along with the US.

The US became a mayor world superpower and Brazil continues to be an emerging market with a sub par educational system and illiterate population. There are many reasons and factors that could explain BraziI’s backwardness. One, however, stands out.       The country is closed to immigration, even badly needed high skilled foreign professionals in dynamic sectors ofthe economy.

The Brazilian economy in 2013 is stagnated with the lowest rate of labor productivity among the BRICS.  Lack of qualified foreign workers + poor quality of schools are the MAIN factor preventing Brazil to become a developed country in this century.

 

2. April 17, 2013 at 9:42 a.m. , Dover- NJ – USA comment sent by T. McK.

I really wish these writers would look at real jobs and real industries. However the data looks overall, certain jobs that were once routinely done by lower middle class workers such as gardening, waiting at table, construction labor and  so on,  are almost all done by immigrants, especially illegals.  And part of the reason is the poor enforcement of wage laws,  and the existence of a cash economy. lt may be that these jobs are now forever changed, but since we have such poor opportunities for the working class, it seems a shame to lose a class of work that had formerly been available.

For decades now, the elites (economists and social thinkers of all sorts) have told us that globalization will bring benefits. And it has, to them, But we have lost much of what provided a way of life for working folks, each time promising them that it will get better .

I don’t see how the authors’ data support their case, in large part because they`ve neglected a critical issue  precisely what kind of immigration are we talking about?

lf immigration law requires that immigrants be  paid a fair wage, have the right to vote and enjoy legal protections against abusive workplaces, and these are truly enforced, then yes,  it’s reasonable to expect that immigrants would indeed boost living standards for both native-born and immigrant Americans alike.

But if immigrants are instead brought in as low-wage replacements for American workers, not allowed the right to vote or forced to ten or more years to gain it, and especially if employers have control over their visas and work situations, then living standards are severely damaged for both immigrants and native-born Americans, that is for everyone but the 0,1% wealthiest Americans who benefit from cheap labor.

Available at <http://www.nytimes/roomfordebate/2013/04/16 the-economics-of-immigration/expanded-immigration-improves living-standards> Access on Sept.4th 2013. Adapted.

 

16 . The author’s main claim in Text 1 is that

(A) higher standards of living in the US have attracted more immigrants from neighboring countries,

(B) American salaries have risen because of the low- skilled immigrants that have left the US

*(C) the increase of immigrant population in the USA has benefitted the economy and created more job oppotunities.

(D) the additional influx of immigrant workers and professionals had a positive impact on the educational standards of Americans.

(E) more businesses and high-technology enterprises take advantage of undereducated workers moving into the US.

Resposta correta: C

Justificativa: As sentenças ” the best available economic evidence suggests that immigration expands the economic opportunities and incomes of Americans and helps reduce the budget deficit” no parágrafo 1 e a ” For American workers the data suggest that rather than competing for identical jobs, immigrants tend to work alongside and in support of American workers, creating more and better job opportunities” no parágrafo 2  justificam a alternativa.

 

17. According to Text I, studies have NOT proved that

*(A) high immigration rates lead to a decline in economic growth and affect the citizens’ standards of living by reducing the prices of goods.

(B) higher rates of immigration help support national welfare programs because the foreign population expands the share of contributors to these programs.

(C) wages are not reduced even when the country experiences high rates of immigrant populations in all educational levels.

(D) foreign professionals have set up many successful  IT start-ups and integrated research projects contributing to scientific development.

(E) more innovation efforts are seen in the economy when a large number of high-skilled professionals are attracted to the country.

Resposta correta: A

Justificativa:. Ao contrário a sentença ” These other findings hint at additional potential benefits of more immigration, including increases in innovation that could help boost overall economic growth.” do parágrafo 4 justifica a veracidade da afirmativa.

 

18. In the excerpt of Text I: “other estimates find that immigration raises the wages of all US workers, regardless of education” (lines 23-25),  regardless of, is substituted, without change in meaning, by

(A) as a result of

(B) because of

(C) except for

*(D) despite

(E) due to

Resposta correta: D 

Justificativa:  As conjunções “regardless of” e “Despite” são sinônimas.

 

19. ln Texts I and ll, in terms of reference. one notices that

(A) other (Text I, line 23) refers to impacts (Text I, line 23).

(B) these (Text I, line 33) refers to programs (Text I, line 31)

(C) them (Text ll, line 46) refers to working folks (Text ll, line 48).

* (D) it (Text ll. line 48) refers to way of life (Text ll, line 47).

(E) these (Text ll. line 56) refers to workplaces (Text ll, line 56).

Resposta correta: D 

Justificativa:  A sentença ” And it has, to them, But we have lost much of what provided a way of life for working folks, each time promising them that it will get better . O “it” da sentença se refere a “way of life” ou seja que o modo de vida ou padrão de vida ficará melhor.

 

20. In Texts I and ll in terms of meaning, one notices that 

(A) cutting-edge (Text I, line 17) and vanguard convey opposite meanings

*(B) further (Text I,  line 25) and additional have equivalent meanings.

(C) actually (Text I, line 32) and nowadays are synonyms.

(D) boost (Text I, line 41) and raise are antonyms

(E) sub par (Text ll, line 21) and extraordinary express similar ideas.

Resposta correta: B

Justificativa: A expressão “further” significa “extra ou a mais” portanto tem sentido de adicionar ou acrescentar uma informação.

 

21. In Text ll, the sentence that expresses the idea of absolute certainty in the future is

(A) “even poor campesinos from El Salvador can prosper in the US” (lines 4-5)

(B) “many predicted Brazil would become a world power” (lines 17-18)

(C) “There are many reasons and factors that could explain Brazil’s backwardness” (lines 22-23)

(D) “lt may be that these jobs are now forever changed” (lines 39-40)

*(E) “globalization will bring benehts’ (line 46)

Resposta correta: E

Justificativa: O auxiliar “will” expressa certeza de que ação irá ocorrer no futuro. A demais sentença indicam possibilidade e outras intenções.

 

22. In the excerpts of Text ll: “The US economic and social systems are set up to provide opportunity for immigrants to prosper” (lines 10-12) and “if immigrants are instead brought in as low-wage replacements for American workers” (lines 60-61) “setup” and “brought in” mean, respectively, 

*(A) established – introduced

(B) ignored -incorporated

(C) organized – discarded

(D) forbidden – eliminated

(E) created -returned

Resposta correta: A

Justificativa: A expressão “setup” significa “estabelecer, montar , instalar, consolidar” e  a expressão “bring in” significa “trazer, mostrar, apresentar” portanto a alternativa está correta.

 

23. In the excerpt of Text ll “living standards are severely damaged for both immigrants and native-born Americans, that is for everyone but the 0 1% wealthiest Americans who benefit from cheap labor” (lines 64-67), “that is” introduces a(n) 

(A) contrast

(B) solution

(C) hypothesis

(D) addition

*(E) explanation

Resposta correta: E 

Justificativa: A expressão “that is” tem a intenção de explicar ou justificar.

 

24. U N., who wrote Comment 1 in Text ll, defends that 

(A) a country becomes a superpower when it takes up in its workforce more qualified immigrant professionals and rejects unskilled workers.

*(B) low-skilled immigrants to the US find more opportunities to prosper than they would in their countries of origin.

(C) Brazil is still an emerging country because it has closed its doors to immigration of unskilled workers from South American countries,

(D) Brazil offers its immigrant population appropriate educational conditions to become valuable citizens.

(E) Brazil’s illiterate population and El Salvador’s immigrants to the US have no opportunity to prosper and help the countries economic growth.

Resposta correta: B

Justificativa: As sentenças ” The question is why a poor EI Salvadorean can become a valuable citizen in the US and not in his native country? The US economic and social systems are set up to provide opportunity for immigrants to prosper.  Immigration is the engine of growth and prosperity of the American economy”  do parágrafo 3 justificam a alternativa.

 

25 .When relating the ideas in Text I with those rn Text ll, one concludes that the 

(A) author of Comment 1, U.N., has a view that is contrary to that manifested by the author of Text I in terms of a country`s economic standards.

(B) author of Comment 2. T NICK. supports the argument on the relation between economic growth and foreign workforce exposed ln Text l.

(C) author ofComment 1 , U.N.. and the author of the comment 3, J.I. , side with the author of Text I about immigration and economic development,

*(D) authors of Comments 2 and 3. T. Mck and J.l., respectively, oppose the view on the relation between economic development and rates of immigration expressed in Text l.

(E) three commentators agree with the perspective on the importance of immigration defended by the author of Text I.

Resposta correta: D 

Justificativa: Realmente os comentários feitos apresentam idéias opostas ou discordâncias sobre o assunto. Enquanto um comentário defende a validade do trabalho imigrante, o segundo coloca ressalvas em relação a idéia apresentada.

 

 

 

 


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